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                中国茶叶流通协会

                全球茶叶消费☉概况简析(一)

                时间: 2022-01-08 09:00 来源: 中国茶叶流通协会 作者:信息宣传▅部

                执笔人:Manuja Peiris  国际茶叶委员会执行主席

                译者:于英杰

                2020年,在与新冠肺炎疫情作斗争的同时,一些茶叶主产国也不得不面临其它挑战,如中国的航运物流和成本控制问题,肯尼亚→的茶业监管问题,印度强降雨天气和斯里兰卡茶园工人的工资问题。 然而,值得庆幸的是,所有产茶国的茶产业作为基础服】务业还在持续发挥作用,这便确保了全球茶业遭受的损失比大多数其它行业要小。

                Whilst battling with the challenges brought upon by the Covid-19 pandemic, several major tea producing countries also had to encounter battles with various non-COVID- 19 related issues through 2020, such as shipping logistics and costs related challenges in China, regulatory matters in Kenya, heavier rainfall experienced in India and plantation worker wage issues in Sri Lanka. However, all tea producing countries commendably continued to function as essential services, which in turn made sure that the global tea industry suffered less than most other industries.

                因中国和肯尼亚这两个茶叶生产国的茶叶产量达到历史新高,2020年,全球茶叶产量增长1.8%。中国和肯尼亚的茶◤叶年产量分别增长了6.7%和25%。

                在中国,因产量增【加,年底仍有大↓量茶叶库存。印度↓也是如此,茶叶批发□商和生产商手中都有大量茶叶积压。过去通』过拍卖方式买到更多低价茶叶的肯尼亚出口商,在年底也有茶叶库存。

                Boosted by increased production in China and Kenya that resulted in historical highs in these two producing countries, global production in 2020 grew by 1.8%. Annual production of tea in China and Kenya grew by 6.7% and 25%, respectively. Generally, most producers benefitted from a much-needed price correction that was long overdue to keep  their  respective industries viable in the face of 

                increased input costs.

                在中国,因产量增加,年底仍有大量茶叶库存。印度也是如此,茶叶批发商和生产商手中都有大量茶叶积压。过去通过拍卖方式买到更多低价茶叶的肯尼亚出口商,在年底也有茶叶库存。

                However, it is believed that this increased production has resulted in a significant quantity of tea remaining in stock with producers in China at end of the year. In India too,  a large quantity of tea is known to be held asstock in the pipeline by wholesalers as well as blenders. Exporters in Kenya who had purchased more teas at the auctions to benefit from lower prices that prevailed during the year are also known to have carried over stocks at end of the year.

                必须指出的是,在2019年已经成为世界第三大红茶产地的中国,2020年红茶产量增长惊人,增至404,265 公吨,年增长率32%。尽管中国和肯尼亚产量增加,全球年出口量下降4%(8000万公斤)。中国、印度、斯里兰卡、阿根廷年出口量均■有下降。

                It must be noted that having become world’s third largest Black Tea producing country in 2019, Black Tea production in 2020 in China grew to a staggering 404,265 mt., recording a staggering annual growth of 32%. Despite the large production increases in China and Kenya, global annual exports declined by 4% (80 million kgs.). Lower exports made during the year by China, India, Sri Lanka and Argentina, contributed to this decline.

                随着茶叶生产国出口量的减少,全球茶叶进口量也下降了 4%(7700万公斤),详见下图。

                In accordance with this reduction in exports from producer countries, global imports

                (Graph below) also recorded a 4% (77 million kgs.) decline during the year.

                在这种情ㄨ况下,巴基斯坦全年茶叶进口量大幅增长 22%(4600万公斤)。 近年来,巴基斯坦西北边境区域的非官方贸易不太顺◥利,导致通过透明的官方渠道进口的茶叶量更多。巴基斯坦进口量达到2.52亿公斤。相比过去十年间增长100%。

                With this reality, the huge annual increase by 22% (46 m kgs.) of imports by Pakistan is significant. A less conducive trading environment experienced by unofficial traders in the North West Frontier province in recent years has led to the importation of more goods into the country through transparent, official channels. Imports into Pakistan reached 252 million kgs. during the year, recording a stupendous growth of 100% within the last ten years.

                英国茶叶市场经过几年的下滑之后,其茶叶进口量增长6%,净增长9%,这得益于2020年居家饮∩茶的消费增多。在最近 50 年的时间里,英国的茶叶进口量一直在下降,随着袋泡茶、混合茶被更广泛地接受,来自茶叶原产国的茶叶和其它多种饮料有了更多的▽竞争对手。本来人们对袋泡茶有90%的喜爱度,但这似乎略︻有下降,因为人们√对散茶重新产生了兴趣,而且仍□ 有小部分人群喜欢有机、果茶、香料、花草△和绿色食品。近年来,英国除了从肯尼亚进口茶叶,从其它茶叶原产国进口低价茶叶的数量增多,包括▂印度尼西亚、越南和南印度。因为肯尼亚的茶︾叶一直供过于求,而且全球到处都是价格々低于2美元/公斤的茶叶,茶叶包装商和超市◥零售商不愁货源。

                After several years of decline or stagnancy of the market, United Kingdom imports grew by 6% with net-imports reflecting an increase of 9% as a direct result of higher in-home consumption during 2020. Import volumes into UK have kept declining over a 50-year period, following the wider acceptance of tea bags, multi-origin blends, dilution of country of origin and a wider choice of beverages competing for a share of the throat been some of the factors. Having touched a percentage share as high as above 90% of tea bag penetration, this seems to have declined marginally more recently with a revived interest in loose teas that still remains very much a niche segment along-with organic, fruit and flavours, herbal and Green. In recent times, UK imports from other origins have been increasing in a clear sign of some packers opting to source relatively cheaper tea from Indonesia, Vietnam and South India, adjusting their intake from Kenya. With the continuing over-supply situation in Kenya and with plenty of teas available around the globe at sub-US$2 prices, both packers and supermarkets are spoilt for choice.

                俄罗斯联◥邦的茶叶进口量保持稳定,报告显示,俄罗斯去年的咖啡消费量超过茶叶消费量,占据热饮消费超过50%。茶叶人均◥消费量为1.1公斤,而咖啡人均消费量约为1.4公斤。由于≡进口关税问题,俄罗斯进口的茶叶主要为散茶。美∮国和埃及的茶叶进口量在这一年均有所下◢降。

                Tea imports into The Russian Federation remained steady where reports indicate that consumption of coffee overtook consumption of tea last year to represent a share of over 50% of hot drink beverages. Per capita consumption of Tea is 1.1 kgs whereas per capita consumption of coffee is approximately 1.4 kgs. Tea is mostly imported into the Federation in bulk form as import tariffs are in place to favour local packers. Imports into USA and Egypt declined during the year but both countries were responsible for large intakes.

                与新冠肺炎疫情直接相关的是,摩洛哥这个全球最大的绿◢茶进口国,其进口量下降近25%。几乎所有进口到摩洛哥的茶叶都是从♂中国来的,很难在短时间内寻找到ξ其它货源,这可能会影响供应链。因为3公斤以下包装的茶叶进口关税高☆达32.5%,几年前,一』些中国企业在摩洛哥开设茶叶包装工厂。目前,90%以上的进口茶叶是散装形式∏,采用20-30公斤的纸板箱〓包装。最受欢迎的茶叶消费包装尺寸是 200g,100g和500g也有供应。

                Directly related to pandemic related challenges, imports into Morocco, the largest Green Tea importing country in the world declined by nearly 25%. With almost all tea imports into Morocco sourced from China, difficulties in seeking alternate sources at short notice is likely to have impacted the supply chain. Following the increase of import duty for tea up to 32.5% for tea in packages below 3 kg. a few years ago, a few Chinese companies have opened tea packing factories in Morocco. Currently, more than 90% of total imports are in bulk form and generally, imported tea is packed in cardboard boxes of 20-30 kgs. each. The most popular consumer pack size is 200 g. whilst 100 g and 500g. packs are also available.

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